The term “Alt-A mortgage” gets thrown around a lot, and for good reason. It’s kind of the generic term for any loan that isn’t prime (A-paper) or subprime. And its definition is really dependent on the investor who sets the guidelines and how it’s packaged and sold on the secondary market.
That said, it’s one of those mortgage terms that isn’t easily defined. It means different things to different banks and lenders, and many characteristics that make up an Alt-A loan are often gray. But I’ll do my best to give you the general idea.
Perhaps one of the most overwhelming characteristics of Alt-A mortgages is their tendency to be limited documentation loans. Most so-called Alt-A loans are not full doc, meaning income is not verified, but rather stated or thrown out altogether.
The same goes for asset or employment documentation. If a borrower prefers not to verify asset reserves or disclose employment history, the loan may also be referred to as an Alt-A loan. These factors alone can lead to Alt-A categorization, even if the associated credit score is excellent and down payment ample.
This is a fuzzy aspect of Alt-A lending, because Alt-A loans can yield credit scores from 620 to 800+. I suppose the general rule you can count on is that Alt-A loans will not fall below a credit score of 620, which is typically reserved for subprime loans.
In the credit realm, you can also reasonably assume that Alt-A borrowers may have some permissible blemishes or shortcomings on their credit reports, but nothing too harrowing. If they do have a bankruptcy filing or major derogatory accounts, this could be grounds for a subprime loan.
But typically that will be reflected in the credit score, and would likely disqualify the borrower from obtaining an Alt-A loan because of score alone.
If the borrower does have an excellent credit score, they may have a limited credit history, which could prevent them from obtaining a prime loan. Remember, credit score means very little without solid history behind it.
Another typical quality of an Alt-A loan is its relatively low down payment. Most mortgages that fall into this category are characterized by minimal down payments, if any at all. Often times this can be the driving factor behind a loan falling into Alt-A status.
For example, on an investment property, where loan-to-values are often limited, Alt-A lenders may allow 100% financing, certainly classifying the loan as Alt-A. With a prime mortgage lender, the max loan to value (LTV) would likely be 80% or less. Most 100% or zero-down mortgages are also classified as Alt-A.
Typically, the debt-to-income ratio is a bit more flexible with an Alt-A loan as well. Instead of a DTI ratio of 30/40, the ratio may be more forgiving, such as 35/45. This is important because it allows the borrower to qualify for a loan much more easily, essentially letting the borrower buy more “house” or put less down.
That could ultimately stretch a borrower too thin, leading to a higher frequency of payment default. For that reason, Alt-A loans are typically priced higher because of the perceived risk.
Because Alt-A loans come with more flexible underwriting guidelines, the interest rate may suffer. This isn’t an absolute, but generally the mortgage rate on an Alt-A loan will be higher than the rate tied to an A-paper loan. Again, this can be murky, but as a general rule, expect a higher rate if your loan is deemed Alt-A. And the greater the combination of weaknesses you have in the above categories, the higher your rate will be.