Mortgage Amortization

Ever wonder how your mortgage goes from a pain in your neck to free and clear?

Well, it all has to do with a little thing called “amortization,” which is defined as the reduction of debt by regular payments of interest and principal sufficient to pay off a loan by maturity.

In simple terms, it’s the way your mortgage payments are distributed on a monthly basis, detailing how much interest and principal will be paid off each month for the duration of the loan term.

Understanding the way your mortgage amortizes is a great way to understand how different loan programs work. And an amortization calculator will show you how your balance is paid off on a monthly or yearly basis. It will also detail how much interest you’ll pay over the life of your loan, assuming you hold it to maturity.

Early Payments Go Toward Interest

amortization schedule

(pictured above is an actual “amortization schedule” from an active mortgage about five months into a 30-year mortgage)

During the first half of a 30-year fixed-rate loan, most of the monthly payment goes to paying down interest, with very little principal actually paid off. Towards the last 15 years of the loan you will begin to pay off a greater amount of principal, until the monthly payment is largely principal, and very little interest.

This is important to note because homeowners that continuously refinance will find themselves back in the interest-paying portion of the loan every time they start anew, meaning they’ll pay a lot more interest over the years. Each time you refinance, assuming you refinance into the same type of loan, you’re essentially extending the amortization period of the mortgage. And the longer the term, the more you’ll pay in interest.

Tip: If you have already paid down your mortgage for several years, but want to refinance to take advantage of low mortgage rates, consider refinancing to a shorter-term mortgage. This is one simple way to avoid “resetting the clock.”

Let’s look at a mortgage amortization example:

Loan amount: $100,000
Interest rate: 6.5%
Monthly mortgage payment: $632.07

Say you’ve got a $100,000 loan at 6.5% on a 30-year fixed payment. The monthly principal and interest payment is $632.07. If you break down the very first monthly mortgage payment, $541.67 goes toward interest and $90.40 goes toward principal. The total debt is reduced by $90.40, so next month you’ll only owe interest on $99,909.60.

So when it comes time to make your second monthly mortgage payment, interest is calculated on the new, lower balance. The payment would be the same, but $541.18 would go toward interest and $90.89 would go to principal. This interest reduction would continue until your monthly mortgage payments were going primarily to principal.

In fact, the 360th payment in our example contributes just $3.41 to interest and a whopping $628.66 to principal.

Consider Larger Mortgage Payments to Shorten Amortization Period

Okay, so now you have a better idea of how your mortgage amortizes. Your next move will be to determine if paying your mortgage down faster is a good idea.

In the example above, you’ll pay a total of $227,545.20 over the 30-year term, with $127,545.20 going toward interest.

If you make slightly larger payments, say $700 each month instead (consistently), your mortgage term will be cut by roughly seven years and you’ll only pay $76,448.10 in interest. That will save you about $50,000 over the life of the loan…not bad.

Take the time to look into biweekly mortgage payments as well. These are mortgage payments made every two weeks, which equates to 26 total payments a year, or 13 monthly mortgage payments. That extra month payment per year goes toward principal, lowering the total amount of interest paid and decreasing the term of the loan.

Every potential homeowner should take a look at an amortization schedule or a mortgage calculator to determine exactly how mortgage payments apply in their particular situation. Simply  knowing your interest rate is not enough to make an educated decision on a loan product.

And be sure you understand negative amortization as well, assuming if you got involved with a pesky option-arm loan.

Read more: 30-year vs. 15-year mortgages.


52 Comments

  1. Rosalie July 15, 2013 at 11:13 am -

    I don’t think people understand how important the amortization period is. They only seem to focus on monthly payments. But the interest savings on a 15-year mortgage are huge, assuming you can handle the extra cost each month.

  2. Colin Robertson July 15, 2013 at 1:02 pm -

    That’s true; most lenders just advertise the monthly payment amount, seeing that it’s what most borrowers focus on. And it’s true that a shorter-term loan will result in a lot less interest paid, but also consider most homeowners move in less than 10 years. And some invest their money elsewhere for larger returns. So the proposed amortization period doesn’t always come into play as scheduled.

  3. Ella July 16, 2013 at 9:38 pm -

    This is exactly why you should go with a 15-year fixed. You will pay A LOT less in interest over half the amount of time. Use an amortization schedule and you’ll see the many tens of thousands you will save.

  4. Patricia July 18, 2013 at 9:31 am -

    Most homeowners don’t know (or seem to care about) how a mortgage is actually paid off. They just look at the monthly payment and nothing else, thanks to the banks. It’s a shame because it could mean the difference of thousands of dollars.

  5. Thomas August 20, 2013 at 8:53 am -

    This is what they mean by resetting the clock if you refinance before your mortgage term is over. You essentially restart the amortization period, and again start paying nearly all interest in your early payments. So those that refinance should always consider shorter terms to avoid extra interest costs.

  6. Jack R. December 12, 2013 at 6:19 am -

    I know exactly how my mortgage is paid off, which is why I went with a 10-year fixed. I’ll save more than $100,000 in interest compared to a 30-year fixed and own my home 20 years sooner. Policymakers in Washington should abolish the 30-year fixed now! It’s a ripoff!

  7. Colin Robertson December 12, 2013 at 7:06 am -
  8. Quentin K. January 18, 2014 at 11:38 pm -

    If I make an extra mortgage payment, will that be reflected in the monthly payment of the amortization schedule? Or does it just reduce interest over the life of the loan?

  9. Colin Robertson January 20, 2014 at 11:12 am -

    If you were to make an extra payment, subsequent monthly payments would still be the same amount, but the interest portion of the payment would go down and the principal portion would go up. As a result, the term of your mortgage would be reduced.

  10. Margie B. July 31, 2014 at 5:31 pm -

    My husband would like to retire in 4 years when he’s 55, just in case his company lays him off, as it is happening to others there when they reach that age. We are 3 years into a 15 year loan at 3.125%. I’ve been putting extra (same amount as our mortgage amount) towards the principal each month.
    Question: Would it be more beneficial to put that amount each month towards the principal,or as an extra mortgage payment? Using amortization tables online, I’m seeing that we can pay off our home in 4 years by putting the extra towards the principal.
    What are your thoughts?

    Sincerely,
    Margie Bayer
    Auburn, WA

  11. Colin Robertson August 1, 2014 at 9:51 am -

    Margie,

    It sounds like you’re talking about two things that are essentially the same. Generally, any excess amount over your mortgage payment due each month goes toward the principal balance. Sometimes you have to indicate that the extra amount should go toward principal as opposed to say escrow. Either way, the quicker you apply extra (or larger) payments, the more beneficial it is. In other words, if you started making double payments the first month your mortgage was due, you’d save more (on interest) than if you didn’t start making double payments until say month 13 because each month a smaller balance would equate to less interest due the following month.

  12. Steve August 2, 2014 at 6:33 pm -

    Exactly, we are just now finding out that 16 years in, even when we double payments we missed the bigger boat during the first 15 years. We are aiming to get it fully paid in the next 3 years, but we already paid the majority of interest so the only good thing is time. Our next mortgage will be paid majority first 15 years instead to kill that extra interest.
    Nice blog appreciate it.

  13. Linda September 12, 2014 at 3:14 pm -

    We have heard that if we make an extra mortagage payment on the principle the first year of the loan and then two extra payments the second year, we would cut our mortgage from 30 to 15 years. Is that correct?

  14. Colin Robertson September 12, 2014 at 6:45 pm -

    Hmm…even if you made one extra payment annually each and every year it would only reduce a 30-year term by a little over four years. Two extra payments annually would shorten the term a bit more, but not cut it in half. Furthermore, the earlier you make extra payments, the more you save. So waiting to make extra payments doesn’t really make sense. Let me know if you have more details on this payment structure.

  15. Mark September 19, 2014 at 11:02 pm -

    If you pay off a 30 year mortgage in five years, is the cost the same as paying off a 5 year mortgage in five years? Assume the same interest rate for both mortgages and assume extra monthly payments on the 30 year mortgage to match the payments on the 5 year mortgage. If the cost is the same, what’s the benefit of getting a five year mortgage vs. a 30 year mortgage paid off in five years?

  16. Colin Robertson September 20, 2014 at 9:28 am -

    Mark,

    It shouldn’t cost the same…the interest rate on a 5/1 ARM should be around 1% lower than a 30-year fixed, so if you really planned to pay it off in five years, you could go with the ARM and save money on interest. But you’d have to make extra payments to principal each month because the ARM still amortizes over 30 years. So it requires a bit more work to pay it off on schedule.

  17. Mike Dillon September 27, 2014 at 8:30 am -

    Colin, my wife and I are gathering info to send to lender for refi of our 30yr into a 15 yr – we are exactly 1yr into the 30 yr. I’d like to find an amortization schedule that will let me enter a fixed monthly additional princ payment starting now (2nd yr in) so I can compare to the refi. I want to do this to determine if I should do refi or just increase monthly payment on my own. The calculator on bankrate won’t let me “jump in” other than at the beginning. We currently have 4.25% and would be getting 3.3% on 15yr.
    Thanks,
    Mike

  18. Colin Robertson September 27, 2014 at 12:55 pm -

    Mike,

    Just do a search for an early mortgage payoff calculator and you’ll be able to find one that lets you add a set amount each month to see the amortization schedule. You’ll likely find that you’ll need to pay quite a bit more each month to match the 15-year with a 1% lower rate.

  19. Kelly October 14, 2014 at 10:22 am -

    We are getting a $206,000, 15 year loan, with 10% down. We have not sold our current home yet, so when we do we will have approx. $30,000…Do we refinance or pay the lump on the current mortgage, which will benefit us the most?

  20. Colin Robertson October 14, 2014 at 12:16 pm -

    Kelly,

    If you’re only putting 10% down, I’m assuming you have to pay mortgage insurance (or take a slightly higher rate). You’ll have to do the math but a refi could mean you can wipe out the mortgage insurance if you apply the $30k to the balance and pay it down below 80% LTV.

    However, if you keep the original loan and apply $30k to the balance, less interest would be paid and the loan would be paid off in less than 15 years. Alternatively, if you refinance with a smaller balance it would take the full 15 years to pay off the loan and result in more interest, but your monthly payment would be smaller because the loan size would be closer to $176k.

  21. Larry October 15, 2014 at 8:25 am -

    Great suggestions! I’ve been paying an extra $250/month on my 30 year mortgage. I’ll check out the “early mortgage payoff calculator. Thanks.

  22. Joe December 1, 2014 at 9:48 pm -

    What’s the difference between having a 30yr mortgage and paying it off early in only 20 yrs versus having a 20 yr mortgage and paying it off at the end, aka 20 yrs?

    cause if you end up spending the same amount of money, then I rather go with a 30yr mortgage and pay extra each month, BUT if $hit hits the fan and i need that extra money for a few month, I can revert back to paying the minimum due which would be much lower on a 30 yr vs. 20 yr plan.

    Am I missing something?

  23. Colin Robertson December 2, 2014 at 9:53 am -

    Joe,

    The interest rate could be slightly lower on the 20-year fixed, which would make it cheaper unless you make even larger extra payments on the 30-year fixed. Additionally, it requires no work on your behalf to make the larger payments tied to the 20-year fixed. On the other hand, you need to be disciplined to make extra payments on a 30-year fixed. Many people lack discipline…but yes, it gives you an out during tough times.

  24. Ian December 26, 2014 at 5:55 pm -

    I have a fixed rate mortgage. I have not missed payments or been late. The bank statement says I paid more interest this year than last year. How is this possible?

  25. Asim December 29, 2014 at 11:58 am -

    Question: I have 30 year amortization left on my mortgage – I am paying double my mortgage each month(weekly payments) – so my amortization showing 10 years left , that it will be paid off in 10 years if i keep paying double mortgage.

    My Question is, i am due for renewal in 2016, Should i decrease the amortization to lets say 10 years – so then what i am paying now becomes my normal payment. Which pay i will be paying more towards principle, and less interest? ? or it doesn’t matter, if i pay double, with 30 year amortization, or normal with 10 year amortization,

    (reason i am thinking decreasing amortization is because it would give me option to pay it even sooner, as currently i am paying the maximum allowed).

    Any input is appreciated.

  26. Asim December 29, 2014 at 12:11 pm -

    To be Exact, $140,000 mortgage, $160 weekly payment , but i pay $360 weekly – which include taxes (yearly$2000) –
    by doing this my bank showing that i will pay off mortgage in 10 years, 14 weeks, (original amortization showing 35 years).
    so when i renew it in jan 2016 – should i decrease the amotriazaion period to lets say 15 years, ,, or what i am doing now is better, as what i am paying extra should be going towards principle. ?

  27. Colin Robertson December 29, 2014 at 12:30 pm -

    Asim,

    If you are truly capped on what you can pay and want to pay more, refinancing to a 10-year loan might make sense. But you’ll have to deal with closing costs. Though you might be able to get a lower interest rate on a 10-year loan to offset those costs and then some. Also keep in mind that a 10-year loan means you MUST make larger payments…it’s no longer optional as it is now with your 30-year loan. Do the math and consider your goals and what you’re comfortable with to make a decision.

  28. Colin Robertson December 29, 2014 at 8:34 pm -

    Ian,

    It might be that you made an extra monthly payment this year as opposed to last. Check out this post:

    http://www.thetruthaboutmortgage.com/boost-your-tax-deduction-by-making-your-january-mortgage-payment-this-year/

  29. Elaine January 14, 2015 at 8:10 am -

    Question for Colin:

    I’m in the process of payment of student debt. If I make a significant initial payment (70K of a 100K loan) will it reduce my subsequent monthly payment minimums? Or does it depend on the repayment plan? I’m presently doing an “Income-Driven Plan,” but my goal is to have the loan paid off ASAP without being completely broke in the interim.

    Thanks so much.

    Elaine

  30. Colin Robertson January 14, 2015 at 10:17 am -

    Hey Elaine,

    I’m not sure if student debt reamortizes. Mortgages don’t, so if you paid down a mortgage similarly, you’d still owe the same monthly payment as the month before, but you’d pay off your mortgage much faster. You’ll need to contact your servicer to see how they handle it. Ask about recasting.

  31. Tiffy January 24, 2015 at 5:03 pm -

    Hi Colin,

    I’m debating on whether or not I should refinance my mortgage loan to a 15 year loan from a 30 year or keep adding balloon payments. This would be my 2nd refinancing as I refinanced 2 1/2 years ago to another 30 year (not wise on my part so I’ve learned). First mortgage was in 2007 for $200,000 30 yr/6.125%, kept it for 5 years then refinanced in June 2012 at $170,000 for another 30 yr/ 3.875% (had to throw extra money to avoid PMI). Have been adding extra payments for the past 2 1/2 years and am now down to $138,800. I don’t know if I should continue to paying extra toward principal or refinance a smaller balance, am thinking of $125,000 for 15 yr/2.875%. Since my first loan, I’ve already paid $77K in INT. I did not realize that it was better to pay extra much earlier in the loan than later. Any advise would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!

  32. Colin Robertson January 26, 2015 at 11:00 am -

    Hey Tiffy,

    If your goal is to pay down the mortgage as quickly as possible and you have the money and don’t plan to invest it elsewhere for a better return, a 15-year mortgage could make sense. The obvious advantage is a lower mortgage rate, the downside is you must make the larger payments each month, it’s no longer optional as it is with the extra payments you’ve been making. Also consider the cost of any refinance in your calculations.

  33. Cheryl January 28, 2015 at 6:21 am -

    Hi Colin,

    I’m 12 yrs into a 30yr loan at 5.75%. Due to where I am on the amortization schedule, it seems not to make sense to refi – even in to a 15yr at around 4% (this in an investment property). Are years in to the amortization a consideration for a refi?

  34. Colin Robertson January 28, 2015 at 10:38 am -

    Cheryl,

    Yes, years remaining on the loan matters for sure, but if you can drop your rate nearly 2% and go with a relatively similar term, the savings should be pretty substantial. And you could look into a 10-year fixed to save even more, assuming you want to pay faster and can handle the payments. Or you could pay extra on a 15-year fixed to amortize it faster. Do the math with an amortization calculator and you’ll be able to see what I’m talking about.

  35. Amy February 8, 2015 at 8:26 am -

    I was told that if I print out my amoritization schedule and pay the next month’s principal amount, it will shorten the mortagage length by a month. So using your example above, if I pay 532.30 more than my payment in Feb 2013, would that essentially mean I have 358 more payments to make?

  36. Colin Robertson February 9, 2015 at 10:59 am -

    Amy,

    It’ll probably be close to shaving a month off your payment schedule. More importantly the interest savings over the term of the loan will exceed that extra principal payment. So $500 paid early on may save $1500 depending on loan balance and interest rate.

  37. Anne Chida February 27, 2015 at 10:25 pm -

    Someone told me there is a way you can pay only towards principal on your mortgage throughout the year and then pay the interest at the end of the year. The benefit, they said, is that the interest would be calculated on the lower principal at year end. Obviously we would need to have funds available to pay a large interest sum at end of year but have you ever heard of doing this, and if so, is it a good idea?

  38. Colin Robertson March 2, 2015 at 10:58 am -

    Anne,

    Not sure about that one. Generally as you pay down more principal early on the interest due decreases because it’s calculated on a smaller balance.

  39. Millie March 6, 2015 at 12:04 pm -

    Question to Colin:
    I have a 20 year mortgage. Loan is 261800. The maturity will be 10/21/2024. Why do I still show $164,393 Would I pay my loan at maturity date? I pay the first instead of the 21 and never missed a payment.

  40. Colin Robertson March 6, 2015 at 6:31 pm -

    Millie,

    It’s because you pay the majority of interest during the first half of the mortgage (larger outstanding balance = more interest), and mainly principal towards the end (because the outstanding balance is small).

  41. Joe April 22, 2015 at 2:02 pm -

    Assuming the same APR and same total loan amount for a 15-year payback period, is there any advantage to a fixed rate INSTALLMENT LOAN versus a 15-year mortgage?

  42. Colin Robertson April 22, 2015 at 2:09 pm -

    Joe,

    Probably that mortgage interest is deductible, and the installment loan might not be.

  43. Kathy Spears May 9, 2015 at 7:01 am -

    I only owe 4100 on my mortgage. Should I now put extra money on the principal or pay an additional amount toward the balance of the loan to get this paid off within the year. Thanks.

  44. Colin Robertson May 11, 2015 at 10:06 am -

    Kathy,

    That’s your decision but if you only owe a small amount you’re probably not paying much interest anyway because toward the end of the loan term payments are mostly principal.

  45. Mike May 19, 2015 at 4:49 pm -

    Hi Colin,

    I have been reading extensively about mortgages and am going to close soon on my very first one. Although I would love to get a 15 yr I think it may be wiser to have the flexibility of a lower payment with the 30 yr fixed. I am very good at saving money and would like to try my best to pay off the 30 yr in 15 yrs. To achieve this, can I simply print out an amortization schedule for a 15 yr mortgage using the exact same interest rate I have on my 30 yr (3.875%) and make sure that I pay the principal due on the 15 yr schedule each month (minus the amount of principal already built in to my 30 yr one)?

    Alternatively, I also wondered what the effect would be if I used the amortization schedule of a 30 yr fixed and then made an additional payment each month of the interest due that month in addition to the principal (in other words, paid the interest due that month twice–once for interest and then the second time put that amount due for interest toward the principal. My reasoning behind this strategy is that I would be paying more toward the front end of the mortgage and then my extra payments each month would decrease as the interest paid each month decreases, thereby keeping the extra payments a little more affordable. I just don’t know how much I will save overall if I do things this way as opposed to simply paying according to the 15 yr schedule.

    I would appreciate any input you have, or any further strategies on how best to convert a 30 yr mortgage into 15 yr without being bound to a true 15 yr.

    Thanks so much!!

  46. Colin Robertson May 19, 2015 at 8:24 pm -

    Mike,

    More or less, yes. You could just make the 15-year payment without worrying about the schedule. However, keep in mind that you are comparing apples and oranges. The interest rate on the 15-year mortgage would be lower so technically you’d have to make an even larger extra payment to equal the savings of the 15-year. But that’s being super technical.

  47. Mona May 31, 2015 at 4:31 pm -

    I am in the process of buying a house for 206,000. I am putting 20% down. What will happen if I pay my monthly payments plus the interest amount from the 360th payment then pay the second payment including the 359th interest amount, etc. What would this accomplish as opposed to every two weeks 1/2 payments?

  48. Colin Robertson June 1, 2015 at 10:23 am -

    Mona,

    The interest amount on the 360th payment would only be a few dollars (it goes down each month over time) so it wouldn’t speed up the payoff of your mortgage very much.

  49. Laura June 9, 2015 at 8:23 pm -

    I am 68 years old and have a 15-yr mortgage with a 4 percent interest rate and in my 4th year on the loan and am wanting to pay the loan off in 5 years. Currently the balance is $57,667 P&I is $608.87. How do I proceed to do this?
    Thanks

  50. Colin Robertson June 10, 2015 at 1:58 pm -

    Laura,

    Do you mean five years total, or five years from now? Either way, you’ll need to find an early payoff calculator to determine what extra amount must be paid monthly to accomplish your goal.

  51. Kim June 22, 2015 at 12:10 am -

    I will buy the house for $185,000. I want to pay mortgage term 15 years. How can I apply for 15 years term and what I need to do. Thank

  52. Colin Robertson June 22, 2015 at 9:19 am -

    Kim,

    Just about any lender will offer mortgages in both 30-year and 15-year terms. So if you want a 15-year loan simply let them know when you apply.

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