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Mortgage Impounds vs. Paying Taxes and Insurance Yourself: The Pros and Cons


If you’ve been researching mortgages, or are in the process of taking out a home loan, you’ve probably come across the term “impounds” or “escrows.”

When you hear these seemingly scary words, the loan officer or mortgage broker is referring to an impound account, also known as an escrow account.

You may even be told you have to pay to remove them, or possibly accept a higher interest rate in return. Let’s learn why.

What Are Mortgage Impounds?

mortgage impounds

  • Impounds or escrows as they’re also known
  • Refers to the automatic collection of property taxes and insurance
  • It ensures you always have funds available to make these important payments
  • A portion is taken out of your housing payment each month and set aside until due

As the name implies, it is an account managed by a third-party, typically a loan servicer, to collect and disperse funds on behalf of the homeowner and lender.

Homeowners pay money into the escrow account at closing and each month after that with their mortgage payment.

Over time, the balance grows and when property taxes and homeowners insurance are due, the money is sent on to the tax collector or insurance company, respectively.

Instead of paying property taxes twice a year, or homeowners insurance once annually, you pay a considerably smaller installment amount each month instead.

This is where the acronym “PITI” comes from – Principal, Interest, Taxes, and Insurance.

You must also pay an “initial escrow deposit” at loan closing, which will vary greatly based on the month you close, and where the property is located.

Lenders may also collect one or two extra months of payments to act as a cushion for future increases in taxes and insurance, but this amount is strictly regulated.

Why Mortgage Impounds?

  • They basically protect the lender from borrower default
  • Assuming the homeowner falls behind on taxes or fails to make insurance payments
  • The monthly collection of funds ensures the money will be available when payments are due
  • And alleviates a situation where the borrower is unable to make what are often very large payments

An impound account greatly benefits the lender because they know your property taxes will be paid on time, and that your homeowners insurance won’t lapse.

After all, if you have to pay it all in one lump sum, there’s a chance you won’t have the necessary cash on hand.

Remember, the average American has little to no savings, so if a big payment is due, uh-oh!

Clearly this is important because the lender, NOT you, is the one that truly owns your home when you’ve got a giant mortgage tied to it.

And they don’t want anything to come in between the interest in THEIR property in the event you’re unable to make these critical payments.

Many seem to think lenders require impounds so they can earn interest on your money, but it’s really to protect their interest in the property.

*Some states require lenders to pay homeowners interest on their impound account balances.

In California for example, it is customary for mortgage escrow accounts to earn interest. Each year you should receive a tax form that shows what you were paid and what you OWE as a result.

Be sure to check your own state law to determine if you’ll earn interest. In any case, it likely won’t be very much money, and it’s taxable…

Impound accounts can also benefit borrowers because the money is collected gradually over time, so there isn’t that big unexpected hit when taxes or insurance are due.

For this reason, some borrowers actually prefer impound accounts, especially those that tend to do a poor job managing their own finances.

And you shouldn’t miss a payment or pay late because it’s all done for you automatically.

[Homeowners insurance vs. mortgage insurance]

Paying Property Taxes and Homeowners Insurance Yourself

  • You should have the option to pay these bills yourself
  • But only on certain types of mortgage loans
  • Such as conventional loans or those where you put down 20% or more
  • But it may cost you .125% of the loan amount

If you’re the type that likes full control over your money, you can always pay your property taxes and homeowners insurance yourself if the underlying loan allows for it.

In this case, you “waive impounds,” which usually entails paying a fee, such as .125% or .25% of the loan amount at closing.

For example, if your loan amount is $200,000, you might be looking at a cost of $250 to $500 to remove impounds.

Of course, waiving impounds/escrows may also come in the form of a slightly higher mortgage rate if you don’t want to pay the escrow waiver fee out-of-pocket.

Either way, there is typically a cost, though you can always try to negotiate with the lender to get them waived and still secure a low rate.

Just keep in mind that you can’t always waive impounds.

Impounds are required on FHA loans, VA loans, and USDA loans.

For conventional loans, impounds are generally required if you put less than 20% down.

And even then, many lenders now charge borrowers if they want to waive impounds, even if their loan-to-value ratio is super low.

In California, impounds are only required if the loan-to-value ratio (LTV) is 90% or higher. But you may still have to pay to waive escrows either way.

It’s seemingly unfair, but like all other businesses, they got creative and came up with yet another thing to charge you for. Sadly, you should be used to this by now.

How to Remove Impounds

  • You can request the removal of impounds once your LTV is at/below 80%
  • So either by paying down your loan over time or via lump sum payment
  • But there’s no guarantee the lender will agree to do so

If you initially set up an escrow account, you may be able to get it removed later down the line.

Simply contact your loan servicer and ask them to review your escrow account.

As a rule of thumb, your request is more likely to get approved if your LTV is at or below 80%. That way they know you’ve got skin in the game.

That 20% in home equity gives the lender sufficient protection from potential default if you fail to pay property taxes or home insurance in a timely fashion.

But it’s not a guarantee, and sometimes they’ll simply balk at your request, even if you have a ton of equity.

Also note that if you have an escrow account and refinance your mortgage, the money should be refunded to you within 30 days of paying off your old loan.

The Annual Escrow Analysis

  • Loan servicers are required by law to review your escrow account annually
  • This happens once a year on your origination date to ensure it’s balanced
  • If you paid too much you may receive an escrow surplus refund check
  • If you didn’t pay enough you may need to pay an escrow shortage

Each year on the anniversary date of your loan closing, your lender is required by federal law to audit your impound account and refund any excess over the allowable cushion.

You will also receive an escrow analysis statement that can be handy to look over.

Generally, the minimum balance required for an escrow account is two months of escrow payments, which covers any increases in taxes and insurance.

When your loan servicer projects the numbers for the year ahead, any surplus, which is your estimated lowest account balance minus the minimum required balance, will be refunded to you.

If your account balance is higher than this minimum amount, you may be refunded the difference via check. It’s a nice surprise when it comes in the mail.

Assuming you aren’t just sent a check that can be cashed, you may get the option to apply any overage to principal reduction or to a future mortgage payment.

You can also be proactive if it appears as if your impound account is a little too full. Simply call and ask them to take a look via an escrow account overage analysis.

It’s also possible that you may experience an escrow shortage, in which case you’ll be billed for the amount needed to satisfy the shortfall.

While not as nice as a check, it indicates that you haven’t been overpaying throughout the year.

The loan servicer may also give you the option to accept a higher monthly payment going forward to catch up on any shortage.

Note that both an escrow account surplus and shortage can result in a different monthly mortgage payment going forward, since they will collect more or less from you in the future.

For example, if you were paying too much last year, you might be told that your new monthly payment is X dollars less. Another unexpected surprise!

If you were paying too little, the reverse might be true – your mortgage payment may go up!

It’s Always Your Responsibility to Pay on Time

  • Regardless of how you pay taxes and insurance
  • It’s always your sole responsbility to ensure they’re paid on time
  • You can’t blame the mortgage lender/servicer if they slip up
  • So always follow up to make sure the payments are made on time

Regardless of whether you go with impounds or decide to waive them, it is your responsibility to ensure that your property taxes and insurance are paid on time, each and every year.

Sure, your loan servicer will probably pay on time, but this may not always be the case. Mistakes happen.

Also, if you’re subject to paying supplemental property taxes, your loan servicer may tell you that it’s your responsibility to take care of them on your own.

If you receive a supplemental property tax bill in the mail, you may want to call your servicer immediately to determine if it will be paid via your escrow account. If not, you’ll need to send payment yourself.

Situations like these are a good reminder to always keep an eye on your escrow account, and to keep solid records of your taxes and insurance.

In summary, it can be nice for someone else to handle these payments on your behalf, but you still have to make sure they’re doing their job!

(photo: Constantine Agustin)

15 thoughts on “Mortgage Impounds vs. Paying Taxes and Insurance Yourself: The Pros and Cons”

  1. Interesting blog! I’m to close on a property 7/15. Just three days ago my lender said my DTI is over by 1.2%. due to an unreimbursed business expense found on my 2013 taxes by the underwriter.
    My only debt is my car payment of 278./mo. Now they are asking me to pay an additional $9000. on my car loan to bring down my DTI.
    Why cant I add the additional $9000. toward the down payment to bring the loan amount down instead. She said it wouldn’t bring my DTI down that much by paying the loan down.
    Totally confused? Thanks

  2. Catie,

    The $9,000 reduction on the mortgage amount probably doesn’t push the monthly payment down as much as you think and may not be enough to get your DTI down where it needs to be. The difference in monthly payment is only $42 for a $200k mortgage vs. $209k mortgage. The car loan has a short repayment period so a big reduction in the outstanding balance would likely lower the monthly payment quite a bit more.

  3. I have a program where if you are a W2 borrower I do not have to hit you with 2106 expense losses which it sounds like if you do not have to be hit with those losses it will save you $9000 out of pocket expenses upfront! : )

  4. Is it possible to open an impound account to have someone else collect my tax payments monthly and send it to the county even if I do not have a home loan?

  5. Steve,

    Not sure such a service exists, but maybe setting up an automatic savings account at the bank combined with a billpay service might accomplish the same thing, more or less.

  6. About to refinance my home in Ohio. Tentative closing date of October 7th. I’m trying to calculate how much in taxes I’ll owe and I’m having a hard time understanding how the initial escrow deposit works. Since my first new mortgage payment will be December 1st, how many months should I have to come to closing with and how are all of these monies allocated?

  7. Brian,

    It depends when your property taxes are due (which month) relative to what month you close, as a certain number of monthly installments (six) will need to be collected to make the full payment. Generally speaking, the closer your first payment date is to your property tax payment deadline, the more is needed in the escrow account, as there won’t be as much time for your escrow account to be replenished. And vice versa. Also, lenders are allowed to ask for a two-month cushion to avoid a shortfall. Best to ask the lender or escrow company directly for the exact figures.

  8. How much escrow should I save each month on a principal and interest payment of $2,706, which includes principal, interest, property tax, home insurance, etc. at today’s 3.375% interest rate, fixed.

  9. Henri,

    It depends what your property tax rate is in your state and how much your homeowner’s policy costs. From there the lender determines how many months must be set aside at closing based on the month in which you close. It can be 3-6 months of escrow payments or even more.

  10. Colin,

    Your personal opinion would you pay your taxes yourself (open an escrow account) or pay it with your mortgage to your lender? I am in process of refinancing and can’t decide if I want to pay my taxes myself? The great thing is the interest rate is 2.75 but my property taxes are due
    in November! I already paid my taxes portion from Jan-August, I was going have the bank refund me the escrow amount, once the bank pays off the loan?

  11. Michelle,

    I don’t mind having the lender pay, it can actually sometimes be easier and less stressful. But I understand some people want total control and don’t want their money tied up; however, there is often a small fee to remove impounds, thus for most it makes sense not to pay that fee and just let the lender pay these things on their behalf.

  12. I pay 2787.77 for P and I my taxes are 5005 per year Doulglas county break it int 4 payments per year I have been paying it online to the county say 400.00 month tax insurance is 80.00 month no impounds
    I make 7215.00 mo no car payments or other debt

    I have been able to save 1000.00 per month
    So no impounds I can budget it but might set up impounds any thoughts


  13. Hi Greg,

    I personally like impounds because you don’t get a surprise bill twice a year, but I also understand many folks like to be in full control of their money and earn interest on it, etc. Lenders often charge to remove impounds as well, via higher closing costs, which is another consideration to keep them.

  14. I closed my escrow account because I was tired of paying the “cushion” charge each year. By doing this, am I correct in thinking this “cushion” charge is going into my pocket instead of the ?
    mortg. bank.

  15. Any excess would eventually be refunded, but I suppose you have absolute control if you pay yourself and don’t need to worry about any overage/cushion.

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