If you’ve been researching mortgages, or are in the process of taking out a home loan, you’ve probably come across the term “impounds” or “escrows.”
What Are Impounds?
- Impounds or escrows as they’re also known
- Refers to the automatic collection of taxes and insurance
- By the loan servicer each month with your mortgage payment
- To ensure you always have funds available to make these payments
As the name implies, it is an account managed by a third-party, typically a loan servicer, to collect and disperse funds on behalf of the homeowner and lender.
In short, homeowners pay money into the escrow account at closing (and each month after that with their mortgage payment), and when property taxes and insurance are due, the money is sent on to the tax collector or insurance company.
So instead of paying property taxes twice a year, or homeowners insurance once annually, you pay a considerably smaller installment amount each month instead.
This is where the acronym “PITI” comes from – Principal, Interest, Taxes, and Insurance.
You must also pay an “initial escrow deposit” at closing, which will vary greatly based on the month you close, and where the property is located.
And lenders may collect one or two extra months of payments to act as a cushion for future increases in taxes and insurance, but this amount is strictly regulated.
- They protect the lender from default
- Because the monthly collection of funds
- Ensures the money will be available
- To make what are often very large payments
An impound account greatly benefits the lender because they know your property taxes will be paid on time, and that your homeowners insurance won’t lapse.
After all, if you have to pay it all in one lump sum, there’s a chance you won’t have the necessary cash on hand.
Clearly this is important because the lender, NOT you, is the one that truly owns your home when you’ve got a giant mortgage tied to it.
And they don’t want anything to come in between the interest in THEIR property in the event you’re unable to make these critical payments.
Many seem to think lenders require impounds so they can earn interest on your money, but it’s really to protect their interest in the property.
*Some states require lenders to pay homeowners interest on their impound account balances.
In California for example, it is customary for mortgage escrow accounts to earn interest. Be sure to check your own state law to determine if you’ll earn interest. In any case, it likely won’t be very much money, and it’s taxable…
Impound accounts can also benefit borrowers because the money is collected gradually over time, so there isn’t that big unexpected hit when taxes or insurance are due.
For this reason, some borrowers actually prefer impound accounts, especially those that tend to do a poor job managing their own finances.
Paying Taxes and Insurance Yourself
- You may have the option to pay these bills yourself
- But only on certain types of mortgage loans
- Such as conventional loans
- Or those where you put down 20% or more
- But it may still come at a cost
However, if you’re the type that likes full control over your money, you can always pay your property taxes and homeowners insurance yourself.
In this case, you “waive impounds,” which usually entails paying a fee, such as .125% or .25% of the loan amount at closing.
For example, if your loan amount is $200,000, you might be looking at a cost of $250 to $500.
Of course, waiving impounds/escrows may also come in the form of a slightly higher mortgage rate if you don’t want to pay the escrow waiver fee out-of-pocket.
Either way, there is typically a cost, though you can always try to negotiate with the lender to get them waived and still secure a low rate.
Just keep in mind that you can’t always waive impounds.
For conventional loans, impounds are generally required if you put less than 20% down.
And even then, many lenders now charge borrowers if they want to waive impounds, even if their loan-to-value ratio is super low.
In California, impounds are only required if the loan-to-value ratio (LTV) is 90% or higher. But you may still have to pay to waive escrows either way.
It’s seemingly unfair, but like all other businesses, they got creative and came up with yet another thing to charge you for. Sadly, you should be used to it by now.
- You can request the removal of impounds
- Once your LTV is at/below 80%
- But there’s no guarantee they’ll agree to do so
If you initially set up an escrow account, you may be able to get it removed later down the line.
Simply contact your loan servicer and ask them to review your account. As a rule of thumb, it’s more likely to get approved if your LTV is at or below 80%.
That 20% in home equity gives the lender sufficient protection from potential default if you fail to pay property taxes or home insurance in a timely fashion.
Annual Escrow Analysis
- Loan servicers are required by law to review your escrow account
- Once a year on your origination date to ensure it’s balanced
- If you paid too much you may receive an escrow surplus refund check
- If you didn’t pay enough you may need to pay an escrow shortage
Each year on the anniversary date of your loan closing, your lender is required by federal law to audit your impound account and refund any excess over the allowable cushion. You will also receive an escrow analysis statement.
Generally, the minimum balance required for an escrow account is two months of escrow payments, which covers any increases in taxes and insurance.
When your loan servicer projects the numbers for the year ahead, any surplus, which is your estimated lowest account balance minus the minimum required balance, will be refunded to you.
If your account balance is higher than this minimum amount, you may be refunded the difference via check. It’s a nice surprise when it comes in the mail.
Assuming you aren’t just sent a check that can be cashed, you may get the option to apply any overage to principal reduction or to a future mortgage payment.
You can also be proactive if it appears as if your impound account is a little too full. Simply call and ask them to take a look via an escrow account overage analysis.
It’s also possible that you may experience an escrow shortage, in which case you’ll be billed for the amount needed to satisfy the shortfall. While not as nice as a check, it indicates that you haven’t been overpaying throughout the year.
Note that both an escrow account surplus and shortage can result in a different monthly mortgage payment going forward, since they will collect more or less from you in the future.
For example, if you were paying too much last year, you might be told that your new monthly payment is X dollars less. Another unexpected surprise!
If you were paying too little, the reverse might be true – your mortgage payment may go up!
It’s Always Your Responsibility
- Regardless of how you pay taxes and insurance
- It’s always your sole responsbility
- You can’t blame the lender if they slip up
- So always follow up to make sure the payments are made on time
Regardless of whether you go with impounds or decide to waive them, it is your responsibility to ensure that your property taxes and insurance are paid on time, each and every year.
Sure, your loan servicer will probably pay on time, but this may not always be the case. Mistakes happen.
Also, if you’re subject to paying supplemental property taxes, your loan servicer may tell you that it’s your responsibility to take care of them.
If you receive a supplemental property tax bill in the mail, you may want to call your servicer immediately to determine if it will be paid via your escrow account. If not, you’ll need to send payment yourself.
Situations like these are a good reminder to always keep an eye on your escrow account, and to keep solid records of your taxes and insurance.
In summary, it can be nice for someone else to handle these payments on your behalf, but you still have to make sure they’re doing their job!
(photo: Constantine Agustin)