A “VA loan” is a mortgage guaranteed by the Veterans Administration. It was created in 1944 and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
VA loans provide veterans and/or their surviving spouses with a federally guaranteed mortgage with zero down payment, otherwise known as 100% financing.
The loan program, also referred to as the GI Bill, has been highly successful and has helped millions of American veterans and their families acquire a home.
VA Loan Eligibility Requirements
VA loans have varying eligibility requirements depending on the duration and type of military service performed. Veterans who served on active duty for 90 days during wartime, or 181 or more continuous days during peacetime are generally eligible.
There is also a two-year requirement if the veteran enlisted and began service after September 7, 1980 or if the veteran was an officer and began service after October 16, 1981. Additionally, there is a six year requirement for National Guards and reservists along with other specific criteria.
Unremarried surviving spouses of a servicemember missing in action or a prisoner of war may also be eligible. The best way to see if you’re eligible for an VA loan is to visit the following website, which lists all eligibility criteria.
You can apply for and obtain a VA loan with any bank or lender that participates in the VA home loan program. To prove eligibility, you will need to get a Certificate of Eligibility from the VA, which your bank may be able to complete for you.
Keep in mind that a VA loan must be used for personal occupancy only (no investment properties), and can only be issued by qualified banks and lenders.
Types of VA Loans
You can get your hands on a VA purchase loan, a VA refinance loan, or a VA streamline refinance, the latter being for those with existing VA loans that want to lower their interest rate without jumping through eligibility hoops.
Prospective homebuyers can borrow up to 100% for a purchase without paying private mortgage insurance and existing homeowners can borrow up to 100% loan-to-value (LTV) for a rate and term refinance (or 90% for a true cash-out refinance).
There’s also the streamline VA refinance program, known as an Interest Rate Reduction Refinancing Loan (IRRRL), which has no maximum LTV.
A VA funding fee of 0% to 3.3% of the loan amount must be paid to the VA, and can be financed on top of the total loan amount.
Benefits and Advantages of VA Loans
VA loans come with a number of benefits and advantages that can make them a solid choice above conventional options. Let’s take a look at some common Q&A.
Do VA loans require a down payment?
No. Perhaps the biggest advantage is the lack of a down payment requirement, which was previously mentioned. Additionally, mortgage rates on VA loans are typically cheaper than those on conventional mortgages, though that will vary based on your unique borrower profile.
So you could wind up with a lower rate and less out-of-pocket expenses, which is certainly helpful for the cash-strapped borrower.
Additionally, VA loans are generally easier to qualify for than other mortgages, though there may some red tape proving eligibility and what not.
Is there a maximum VA loan amount?
Once again, the answer is no. The VA does not limit how much you can borrow, though there are limits on how much liability the VA is willing to assume. Put another way, lenders won’t go above the VA county loan limits, which vary from county to county.
The VA loan limit is aligned with the conforming loan limit of $417,000, though there are high-cost counties that go much higher, such as Arlington at $692,500, Los Angeles at $687,500, and San Francisco at $1,050,000
Borrowers can get loans up to these amounts without a down payment. But if the loan amount exceeds these limits, a down payment may be required. A down payment may also be required if a veteran has already used their entitlement and it hasn’t been restored.
Do VA loans require a minimum credit score?
Aside from not needing a down payment, there isn’t a minimum credit score requirement for VA loans. However, most lenders that originate VA loans still require a minimum credit score, such as 620 or higher. So it can be somewhat misleading.
That said, you should still do your best to stay on top of your credit if you want the lowest mortgage rate possible
Do VA loans require mortgage insurance?
Finally, VA loans do not require you to pay mortgage insurance, which can obviously increase the cost of the monthly mortgage payments and the overall cost of your mortgage.
However, the VA does collect a funding fee, which insures your loan against default.
Do VA loans cover manufactured homes?
This always seems to be a popular mortgage question, regardless of loan type. The short answer is yes, you can use a VA loan to buy a manufactured home and/or lot. However, the trick is finding a lender out there willing to provide VA financing for a manufactured home.
So it’s a yes according to VA eligibility, but a maybe in terms of finding a lender willing to extend the loan. In short, it might require a bit more legwork to track down someone willing to offer the financing.
Do VA loans require an appraisal?
If purchasing a home with a VA loan, an appraisal will be required. This is for your protection too to ensure the home is worth what you’ve agreed to pay for it.
An appraisal is also required if you’re attempting to pull cash out of your home. Conversely, if you’re simply looking to reduce your mortgage rate via an IRRRL, no appraisal is required.
Do VA loans have closing costs?
Like all other mortgages, VA loans have closing costs, which is completely standard and normal. However, the VA does have strict rules when it comes to closing costs. Only certain fees are considered “allowable,” including:
- Loan origination fee (typically 1% of the loan amount)
- Loan discount points (optional to lower your interest rate)
- Credit report
- Appraisal fee
- Hazard insurance and property taxes
- VA funding fee
- Title insurance
- Recording fee
If there are other fees connected to the loan, they cannot be paid by the borrower. So if it’s a purchase, the former owner could provide seller concessions, the real estate agent could provide a credit, or the bank could provide a lender credit to cover the non-allowable closing costs.
Do VA loans require an escrow account?
The VA does not require lenders to maintain escrow accounts, though most impose them to ensure borrowers have the necessary funds to pay hazard insurance and property taxes in a timely manner.
In other words, the VA doesn’t explicitly require escrow accounts, but the lender you ultimately work with probably will, so there’s not much way around it. Additionally, there is typically a fee to waive escrows, so it might be cheaper just to escrow.
Do VA loans require reserves?
No, VA loans do not require reserves, which is another plus. However, if the property being financed is a multi-unit property and you’re using rental income to qualify, six months PITI will be required for reserves.
Additionally, those with non-traditional or insufficient credit may be required to provide reserves.
In summary, if you feel you meet the eligibility requirements for a VA loan, be sure to include this loan in your mortgage search. You may find that another type of home loan is more beneficial, but you should compare all options to be absolutely certain.